Mailing lists - General introduction

What is a mailing list?

A mailing list is a distribution list allowing a group of subscribers to automatically receive by email all messages sent to the list: every message sent to the list by a subscriber is received by all the other subscribers. When subscribed to a mailing list, it is possible to send messages, to reply to them or to read them without contributing (i.e. to "lurk").

Special cases:

  • It is sometimes possible to send messages to a mailing lit without having subscribed to it. However, you need to be subscribed to a list to receive its messages.
  • It is sometimes impossible to send messages to the list even though you are actually subscribed to it: it is the case for announcement lists, which are used to transmit information from a unique sender to a large number of recipients.

Interest of mailing lists

People subscribe to a mailing list (sometimes abbreviated in ML) to be informed about a particular topic and to take part in exchanges about it. Examples are:

  • mailing list for all the employees of a company;
  • mailing list reserved to the participants in a project;
  • mailing list dedicated to a class of students;
  • mailing list about the latest news in computer security;
  • mailing list of mutual aid between handymen;
  • mailing list restricted to a family and dedicated to the organization of large family gatherings;
  • and so on!

Types of mailing lists

There are thousands of mailing lists of all kinds on the Internet: public or private, free or not, with subscription subject to conditions or not, etc. Those lists may have from a dozen up to several thousand members.

According to the way they work, we can distinguish between two types of lists:

  • Announcements lists allow subscribers to receive messages without being allowed to post some themselves. In fact, those messages are newsletters: electronic magazines, daily services (daily horoscope, daily weather report, daily security alert, etc.), update notices about a website, etc. With this type of mailing list, the information flows from a unique sender to a large number of recipients.
  • Discussion lists allow all subscribers to take part in exchanges. Those lists can be moderated or not:
    • In a moderated discussion list, messages are transmitted to all subscribers after approval by one of the list moderators. Moderation is a token of quality for the list. For example, it ensures that subscribers will not receive off-topic messages, unsolicited commercial messages (spams), messages containing large attachments, etc.
    • In a non moderated discussion list, messages are transmitted to all subscribers as soon as the mailing list management robot receives them.


Once subscribed to a mailing list service, you can:

How the mailing list service works: roles and responsibilities

A mailing list service involves four types of roles:

  • listmaster;
  • owner;
  • moderator;
  • subscriber.

It is possible to have several roles at once (for example, you can be an owner and a moderator of a list and be subscribed to several others).


Listmasters are in charge of the management of the mailing list service. Their duties:

  • manage the mailing list server (deployment, maintenance, etc.);
  • define the general orientations of the mailing list service:
    • who will be allowed to ask for the creation of a new list,
    • which options will be available to manage lists (scenario definition),
    • what the default files will contain (creation of templates),
    • what will the mailing list web interface look like;
  • set the way the mailing list service should be used and document those rules through providing charters to subscribers, moderators and owners;
  • approve of requests of mailing list creations;
  • temporarily replace list owners when necessary; on the other hand, listmasters are not supposed to take the place of moderators.

List owners and moderators can turn to listmasters when they face a problem not dealt with by the documentation or for any comment. However, in order not to flood listmasters with messages, it is recommended that subscribers rather turn to list owners.


The list owner is generally its creator or, failing him/her, the person who requested the list creation or who became responsible for it. His/her role:

A list can have several owners. However, the 'Privileged' profile is reserved to the list's creator; other owners have a 'Normal' profile, which has fewer prerogatives.


Moderators are appointed by the list owner. They are in charge of controlling the relevancy of the messages sent to the list: after reading them, they choose to accept or to reject them . Moderation occurs before the message is actually sent to subscribers. Rejection of a message is possibly followed by a notice to the sender in order to explain the reason for that rejection.

A list can have one or several moderators; generally, the list owner is also a moderator.

This concerns only moderated lists.

Regulatory framework

The use of a mailing list service means respecting a number of rules:

  • In most mailing list services, subscribers receive a 'List subscribers charter' on subscription. Then they are obliged to respect all the rules contained in that charter.
  • If available, list owners and moderators have to conform to the 'Owner and moderator charter'.
  • The use of mailing lists naturally means respecting the rules of good practices as regards email (the "Netiquette").

To know more, refer to the section dedicated to good practices for subscribers and to the section about good practices for owners and moderators.

The Fundamentals

If you have an Electric Embers billing account (not just a Groups login) and need help managing groups, please see the Groups Administrator's Guide

To create your own groups or access private groups to which you belong, you must first create an account and login, either at, or at if you have a Custom Groups domain. We require nothing other than your email address, and if you guard that carefully you might be interested in our Privacy Policy. If you have already subscribed to a group, then you already have an account and a password, which you should have been sent when you joined; if you have no idea what it is, just click the Request password box on the login page and it will be sent to you.

Note on address changes: To change the email address that is subscribed to group, go to your Preferences page. This will change your subscribed address on all groups on this server.

Group Creation:
Those who have signed up for a Groups account from Electric Embers will see the Create Group button in the top menu after signing in. If you want to create groups, you need to Sign Up for an account. If you haven't done that, you won't be able to create groups. If you're just looking to test out the system, then you will still need to fill out the Sign Up form, and we will give you an account in the testing domain, where you can create your test groups.

Once you have an account, login and click the Create Group button. That takes you to the group creation page, where you can choose the basic initial settings for the group; everything except the group name (and owner) can be changed later from the Group Settings area. After you submit the form, you will be able to fully configure and customize the group immediately, but the list will not be active until the creation request is approved by us. We generally do this quickly, and you will receive notification.

Notifications for Owners and Moderators:
Sympa can keep you informed about all kinds of activity on the group, depending on the settings you choose. It can inform you of subscribe/unsubscribe requests (with or without requiring approval), list messages requiring moderation, or too many messages bouncing from subscriber addresses. Notifications of subscription requests or list messages that require approval will include embedded links to special email addresses for approving or rejecting the request by email; you can also choose to perform these approval functions through the Web site. A group can be assigned any number of different owners (those who have the ability to change group settings) and different moderators (those who have the ability to approve or reject moderated postings), and they will all receive the proper notifications.

Email Commands:
Most list functions (for users and admins) are available by email as well as through the Web, and a few things are best done or only done via email commands. Please see the Sympa Email Command Guide.

Almost everything about a group, including its Web page and automatically generated administrative messages, can be customized through the owner's administration page. On an entirely different level, almost everything about the entire site, from the colors to the layout to the contents of the main page, can be customized if you have us create a custom domain within your organization's domain, like instead of Please ask if you want details about running your groups in a custom domain.

Subscriber, moderator and owner documentation

For almost all Groups-related questions, Electric Embers provides:

And for detailed technical info not found there, the Sympa software developers provide:

You can also write us for help.

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